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1917. Русская революция: 7/9/2018 11:07:39


DesertFox
Level 57
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Beginning note:
The Russian Revolution, whithout red ink.


Napoleon said that revolutions are not made alone, but by their leaders. In autumn 1917, Lenin was quoting with pride the philosophy of Bonaparte.And still, what means a revolution that belongs to the people? The history turn the sandglass of time- 100 years passed since the interior problems of one’s nation have catched a color.Red. Crimson red.That red which turned upside-down half of the planet.How we reached the events of 1917? What were the elements that have brought to this world the Russian Red ?

Tradition and modernization : two things that the Russians always wanted to combine, but they never managed to put them in a proper environment .A continuous pirouette in this vicious circle , to which only one stable fundament had kept it since the time of Rurik : silnaia ruka An iron fist with or without its silk glove, to rule everyone. An absolute leader, dedicated to Russia.How much was 1917 influenced by the balance between the two wishes of the Russian people? And in what extent was in the direct will of the people the coming of this new silnaia ruka ?An iron fist with or without its silk glove, to rule everyone. An absolute leader, dedicated to Russia.How much was 1917 influenced by the balance between the two wishes of the Russian people? And in what extent was in the direct will of the people the coming of this new silnaia ruka ?

March, 1872. An idea which was sold from its first circulation in totality : 3.000 copies. The relation between Marx’s Das Kapital and the Russian people was underestimated by the tsarists.The Marxism have catched the people, gave them the variant of a western ideology, applicable in Russia, which could bring it to a modern and free system. It did influence : it was popular that, especially the youth, to embrace the head-book of the German philosophy of the 19th centuty. A young Lenin , inspired by it, have created since then what was going to be his action’s manifest in 1917 : ‘’What is to be done?’’ . Idea and ideology.Where was 1917 positioned on the Marxist-Leninist axe ?

1891. The people were defeated by hunger.Not even the nature was on their side, the dangerous wild stepe, dikoe pole as it was called, was biting with its cold teeth their bones.Sankt Petersburg was closing it’s windows to the West . The Tsar was closing it’s rolling shutters in the face of a very divided society. On one side, the people, the workers, the ones with cracks on their hands and holes in their stomachs.On the other side, the elite, nobles, writers. Intelighentia

But why the last ones have written the revolution with red ink ? The Kingdom of God was found there by Tolstoi , wekened by the uncurable pain of the Russian people.They were still looking for Zhivago.The time passed, but in front of hunger, of fate and the Tsar , even God couldn’t help them.Father Gapon stood in front of the workers who were asking for bread.Only that. The people still belived in their bond with the Romanov,the faithful Christian. Armed with white boards, on which was written : ‘’Don’t shoot the people!’’, they were heading for the palace, in 1905.The soldiers have listened to the order: 2 shots in air, the third in the front row. ‘’Not the bread was keeping them alive,but it was killing them’’, a russian ballad said, not knowing what was preventing. And that’s how the faith is lost, in state and divinity- for a bread. The priest have escaped and told to the entire Russia :
‘’We are without a tsar! We are without a God!’’

The Russian people learned to endure,but the hunger was neede to be stopped.After the old calendar, 23 February was the Women’s Day, and the women have ’’celebrated it’’ in the streets. It was 1917 and the ‘’Glorious February’’was selling…for a bread. The Russian Revolution. The year 1917 is known just on short on the entire world : an event in February, the abdication of the Romanovs, then chaos, chaos and again chaos,until the 0 point in Octomber, when the Bolsheviks took the power and the history of the world took another path.

In the last 100 years, we must have learned that the Russia’s 1917 was more than just that. Social clases, leaders and ideas, propaganda and testimony, the Whites and the Reds, the end of one of the most important dynasty of the history, people around the throne and from behind the decisions, Father Petersburg and the widow tsarina Moscow, revolution and coup d’etat. But , especially, was part of the identity of a nation. And its echo would reach even my beloved coutry , leaving its marks here too.

I will try from now on , whenever I have the time , to write ‘’whithout red ink’’, to show you the truth.(more likely to compose and translate stuff about this topic ).

DesertFox

Edited 7/9/2018 11:15:40
1917. Русская революция: 7/9/2018 20:11:15


Wednesday
Level 14
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>marxism
>german philosophy

imbecile

>two conflicting wills of the russian people

Dead wrong, it was a small minority which wanted to impose westernization.

Edited 7/9/2018 20:14:05
1917. Русская революция: 7/9/2018 23:13:49


Wulfhere
Level 48
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The Russian revolution was catalyzed by hunger but hunger has no causal role in politics. Take the USSR: millions of Russians starved because of Soviet policy, and the Soviet Union didn't collapse until things got much better - it killed itself by trying to be LESS totalitarian, gave its people a taste of nationalism and free markets. Also Russians were starving throughout the middle ages when the Tsar ruled with an iron fist. Revolution happened in 1917 because Russia was in its revolutionary life phase.

There are more elements to the Bolshevik revolution than Communism. Lenin, Trotsky and the Bolsheviks were materialists who despised culture and cohesive nations, and their revolution was to destroy nations and revolutionize markets and governments entirely to create the most wealthy pleasurable existence for the workers. But the Russian people themselves were rebelling against the inorganic, Western-imposed Tsar and simply trying to form a more organic state that wasn't necessarily Marxist. Marxism and Liberalism were the prevailing revolutionary "philosophies" at the time so revolution took on a Marxist character. The Bolsheviks hated Christendom and put Russian people in camps because (((they weren't Russian))) and socialism in one country gradually prevailed over world revolution. Nationalism replaced Communism. The Russian revolution had the fundamental goal of creating a more organic Russian model not creating Lenin's vision of a Marxist world utopia.
1917. Русская революция: 7/16/2018 19:30:16


DesertFox
Level 57
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I. A truth mystified by the Bolsheviks
The Russian Revolution took place in February 1917.



1. Russia during the Great War.
(Prologue 1)

In 1917, near the abdication of the Tsar, Russia was in a very bad situation, military speaking.Having huge loses of men and material, the Russian Empire have lost also a huge part of it’s European lands, mostly on Germany’s hands.The entering in the war, forced by France, didn’t advantage the Russians.There were problems on social, economic and military levels,and the revolutionary spirit ,started in 1905, was still burning in the Russian society. Everything on the background of the Tsar losing popularity and the military loses.

The military effort of Russia was enourmous: between July 1914 and Octomber 1917, 15 million Russians took part on the Eastern Front- stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Danube- and the Caucasus Front. From this number, 5 million were taken prisoners and 2 million died. In July 1914, 1.4 million men were mobilized, the number reaching 7.17 million at the end of 1914. 5.64 were mobilized in 1915, 3.09 in 1916 and 2.7 in 1917, all of them coming from the industrial, agricultural and educational branches, greatly affecting them.A big problem was that, even though Russia could mobilize millions of soldiers, it couldn’d feed and arm all of them, those from the first line lacking the necessities for a decent life, from food to clothes, to weapons and ammunition. The low quality of the Russian officers, most of them from big nobiliar houses, the lack of proper communications and information about the enemy , and even the hate between the Russian commanders brought big defeats and the loss of the morale of the soldiers.

1.1 The Eastern Front.

In autumn of 1914, the Germans defeated the Russians at Tannanberg ,in East Prussia, and then at the Mazurian lakes, pushing the Russian troops , though superior in numbers, behind the border. For strategical reasons, but also from taking off the preasure from the Austro-Hungarian ally, the Germans attacked Warsaw , fresh troops being brought for this action from the Western Front.Other German troops advanced pretty fast through through the Baltic region, taking Liepaja in Latvia, then Kaunas, and from there the possibility of threatening Sankt Petersburg.

The Russian success was materializing though on the front with Austro-Hungary from the first months of the war,in Galicia and Bucovina. Lvov was occupied in the first month of the war,followed by other victories.Russians produced great loses in the ranks of the Austro-Hungarian troops.In may 1915, the Central Powers launched the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive, where the heavy German artillery brough hell through the Russian troops.Under general Mackensen, the Germans smashed the Russian 3rd Army, causing aprox. 1 million causalties- dead and wounded, and taking 250.000 prisoniers.

Even though, besides the defeats, 1914 could have offered somekind of optimism on the military plan, 1915 was the worst for the Russian army.Germany continued it’s offensive on the Eastern Front ,occuping Poland , Lithuania and parts of Bielorussia.German troops were 25 km away from Riga, making the authorities of Sankt Petersburg to start planning evacuating the state archives,the treasury and other cultural goods.At the same time, the Austro-Hungarian troops had recaptured Lvov and Przemysl, having such an advance, that made general Ivanov, commander of the South-West sector of the front, to order the evacuation of Kiev, but his order was rejected.

In 1916, guesing the possible disaster that was upon the Russian Army , the Entente started to send serious help , consisting in weaponry, ammunition, various military tech, alongside with military observers.The Western Front,freezed in the never ending trenches, couldn’t permit big actions for the Allied troops, to force the German troops to move from the Eastern Front. On the inter-allied conference at Chantilly held on December 1915, it was decided that the Allied powers would start simultaneously 2 big offensives against the Central Powers, somewhere in June 1916, the Russians getting help from the Salonika front.On March 18,1916, the Russian army started a new offensive in Bielorussia, with 300.000 soldiers and over 1000 artillery pieces.Important battles took place in the North-West sector, around Riga and Naroch lakes, where the Russian army was unfortunaly defeated.

The new commander of the South-West sector, general Brusilov, had planned very good the offensive that today bears his name - the Brusilov offensive - knowing that he will have a great chance to turn the tide of war. In big secrecy,after changing some commanders, he obtained new information about the enemy, ordered to use a new tactic and took care on an adequate instruction and rearranged the troops on the front, ordered attacking Galicia, in west,gaining one of the biggest victories in the war. The offensive was aimed on a 500 km front, towards Lutsk and Kowel, right on the birthday of Jozef Ferdinand, the commander of the 4th Austro-Hungarian army, which was helding a party in Trencin, Slovakia.

The offensive started on June 4th ,1916- the Russian artillery stroke hard, the Austrian counterstrike was weak. A thing to mention is that multiple Czech and Ruthenian units defected to the Russians, other units retreated from the front and other were captured by the Russians.After few days of fighting, from the initial 110.000 soldiers that the 4th A-H army had , only 18.000 were still active. Though the success, some Russian commanders did not execute the offensive orders, and the enemy, mostly the Germans, brought reinforcements to the front.On July 27, a new Russian attack smashed the remainings of the 1st and 4th A-H armies , but the northen flank of the the Russian attack did not make the necessary manouvres and the offensive stopped.If in June, 650.000 Russian troops attacked a combined Austro-Hungarian, German and Ottoman force of 500.000 troops ,at the end of the offensive in September, both sides had send reinforcements to replace the huge loses.The fights resulted in 500.000 casualties on the Russian side and over 50.000 prisoniers.The Central Powers suffered even more: the Austro-Hungarians lost over a half of million of it’s troops-dead or wounded-and aprox 400.000 prisoniers- the total numbers representing half of the troops on the Eastern Front the Austro-Hungarians had ! The Germans had 300.000 casulaties and the Ottomans, little over 10.000. Unfortunaly for the Russians, the excessive usure of men and equipment didn’t let Brusilov to mount an attack over the Carpathians towards the Panonian plains or even further…

1.2 Romania and Russia,allies

1916 would see Romania cheerfully entering in a war she thought will win easely alongside with the Allies.Like in Russia’s case,Romania was forced to enter in war by France,which had a hard time on the Western Front.From the beginning , the Russian commanders were skeptical about the help they should have given to Romania, some of them saying directly that their new ally would only cause logistic and strategic problems to Russia.The pessimists were right, Romania being fastly defeated and occupied in it’s majority by the Central Powers troops, in December 1916.Russia was forced to move new troops towards the carpathic and danubian fronts, who did not have a great contribution in the battles in Dobrogea and around Buchararest.On the Carpathian line there were recorded some serious fights, the small offensives launched by the Russian troops bringing temporary advantages to the Allies but without decisively influencing other fronts. Romania's defeat brought enemy troops to the Danube mouths, where attacks could be now launched on Odessa, a vital city for Russia.At the same time, the territory of Moldova, defended for the time being by the Romanians,was a small spot on the strategic map dominated by the enemy advance. If Romania fell, the situation would have become really desperate for the Russians in the southwest and, consequently, in other sectors of the front.

Despite this serious situation, the western allies have urged Russia to start a new offensive in the spring of 1917, an year in which imperial losses were 15.4% of the territory of European Russia, 23.3% of the population of the same territory and one third of factories.The soldiers, demoralized and sick by war, engage in robberies, destruction and rape, deporting Germans, Gypsies, Lithuanians, Jews, and Polish from the front line, accused of pact with the enemy,hundreds of thousands of refugees filled the roads and the towns behind the front , and above all the revolution appeared.
1917. Русская революция: 7/16/2018 19:31:12


DesertFox
Level 57
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1.3 Caucasian and Persian fronts

The most interesting and active russian front, so little known to people,was the one against the Otomans,it’s line streching from the Black Sea ,through Caucaz mountains,towards the middle of Persia,today’s Iran.The fighting in the Caucasus began in autumn 1914, with the Ottomans being crushed in the battle of Sarikamis and the Russians crossing the Ottoman border, without advancing much. On January 10, 1916,200,000 Russians attacked eastern Anatolia, breaking the Ottoman defensive and sieging the city of Erzurum,the headquarters of the 3rd Ottoman army ,which fell on February 16.By the end of summer, the Russians were directly threatening the city of Sivas and the road towards Ankara.

Assiduously following the conquest of Constantinople, in the old Russian imperial tradition, since August 1916, Admiral Kolceak was preparing for a landing in Bosphorus-
two complete divisions, leaving from Sevastopol and Odessa, had to carry out the maneuver between June and August 1917,which was the most favorable period in terms of climatic conditions. He also took advantage of the fact that there were no troops in the capital's area only two Ottoman divisions, which were numerically lower than the Russian ones.Kolceak's troops were called '' Tsarigradski '', precisely to emphasize their role.Even after the abdication of the tsar, some Russian commanders wanted the plan to be carried on,but it had to be abandoned for objective reasons.

Since the beginning of the war, the Russians had 120,000 soldiers in northern Persia, from where they threatened the Ottoman Empire, having been successful in 1916 and especially in 1917, contributing to the fall of Baghdad under the British in March 1917.

The Russian troops here, mostly cavalry ones-Kuban and Terek cossacks, the Georgian and Siberian cavalry, the Caucasian Caucasian Division-comanded by general Baratov, had set up the offensive to Mosul, where the remains of the Ottoman army in Mesopotamia were. The Russians stopped suddenly at one point, the Caucasian front becoming calm in 1917. It was only in the spring of 1918 that Baratov set off a small offensive in the Kara-Tepe area, in the northeast of Mesopotamia, but with a small and reduced effects.It was clear that the Russians want to advance in Persia to reach the warm seas south and to get closer to Afghanistan and especially to India.London, on the other hand, agreed to the occupation of Constantinople by the Russians,with the condition that Russia remains in war and Persia to remains either neutral ,either on the Allies side, given that numerous Ottoman and German agents have been operating in the high circles of the Tehran power.

From the summer of 1914, the Russians armed the Christian (Armenian) and Kurdish guerrillas in the area of Lake Urmia, where the Ottomans took the city of Tabriz in January 1915, but then was recaptured by the Russians. The orders received by General Baratov were clear: taking Tehran to stop the young Shah Ahmad, 17, to make an alliance with the Germans. The Shah also understood from the discussions with the British that if they do not take action against the Germans, the Russians will get their free hand in Persia and will continue the war with the British.On November 15, 1915, the Shah gave up any armed action in the midst of the internal political crisis, so that the Russians, starting from the Quazvin base, quickly capturing Qom, Hadaman, Kermanshah, Ispahan, the basis of the Philogerman opposition, on 20 March 1916. During this time, the British had great problems in Iraq, where their advance was stopped by the Ottomans in November 1915, near the ruins of the ancient capital Ctesiphon, then suffered a long and hard siege in Kut-al-Amara in December 1915 for 5 months. Two British armies sent for depression failed to reach their target, and Baratov's Russians, about 250 km away, did not move from place to place, invoking various reasons.Only in April, after three months of excuses, the Russians moved towards Baghdad, reaching 5 days of march from it, but it was too late- demoralized, suffering from hunger and with their ammunition gone, the British surrendered to the Ottomans. A new proof of the Russian selfish imperialism emerged. The Russian command again ordered Baratov to attack Mosul to assist the British ally in May 1916 but the general refused again, citing the heat that his Cossacks were not accustomed to, malaria and cholera that had made many victims. But his refusal was also due to the information that the German officers who had arrived at Gallipoli had, after the British withdrawal from the peninsula, moved to Baghdad with a powerful arsenal of machine guns. However, Baratov has messed-up the plans of Ottoman and Persian Pan-Islamists to start a jihad from Anatolia to India. The Russian troops on these southern fronts gradually withdrew to the north, later participating in the Russian civil war ,in the both sides.

This is how Russia presented itself at the beginning of 1917, a decisive year in its history and the entire world.
1917. Русская революция: 7/17/2018 12:50:30


sound_of_silence
Level 56
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tldr, but out came the tsar, in come the german, did the slavs get what they wanted ?
1917. Русская революция: 7/17/2018 15:18:50


DesertFox
Level 57
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not really.just mess.

(btw these posts will be weekly or , if the chapther is shorter, twice per week )
1917. Русская революция: 7/18/2018 23:41:50


Wulfhere
Level 48
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tl;dr
1917. Русская революция: 7/22/2018 20:07:09


{Canidae} Kretoma 
Level 59
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Wow i am impressed DersertFox. :D
1917. Русская революция: 7/23/2018 09:00:12


DesertFox
Level 57
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2. Fall of a world : Romanov's Russia
(Prologue 2)

In the beginning of the 20th century, the Tsarist Russia appeared as a country of contrasts: 80% of the population consisted of peasants who had a life as in the Middle Ages and at the other end were the artists, the writers, the composers, the people of science, perfectly familiar with Western lifestyle.Besides the capitalist economy, represented by the fact that Russia was the largest oil producer and the main exporter of granaries, there is a regime of political censorship and police arbitrariness, with neither a constitution nor a parliament. The educated clases hoped, in the twentieth century's perspective, that Russia would jump in modernity and catch up with Western Europe or perhaps even overcome it.

In the second half of the nineteenth century Russian state people realized that Russia could not remain a great power if it did not create its own industry and an economic base capable of securing its independence in the report with foreign capital.Russia adopted the gold standard in 1897, which made the russian ruble one of the most stable currencies in the world and stimulated foreign investment.Between 1892 and 1914, foreigners invested more than $ 1 million in Russian businesses (equivalent to 20 billion $ in gold in 1995),so Russia has seen a leap in industrial development that would bring the country, along with its agriculture and mining resources, the fifth place among the world's economies.

2.1 Believes impossible to budge

At the end of the nineteenth century, although they were still forbidden by law, political parties began to take shape. The Revolutionary Socialist Party was formally created in 1902, and in 1905 the Constitutional-Democratic Party, the main Russian liberal group, which would differ from the radical organizations through its component and program, given that at the beginning of the 20th century, many of Russia's inhabitants were devoted to the idea of a fundamental change. What happened in ''Bloody Sunday ''(9 January 1905), the fall of Port Arthur in 1905, the Battle of the Tsushima Strait and the sinking of the Russian fleet(may 1905) amplified the crisis of the Czarist regime that had been shaken in February 1899 by the revolt of university students, followed by new disturbances in July 1899 and December 1900. The ’’October Manifesto’’ (17 Octomber 1905 ) would represent the beginning of the end for Russian autocracy.

Despite some obvious realities in the political and economic life of Tsarist Russia as well as of the Old Continent, Tsar Nicholas II and the entire family of Romanovs ‚’’fled in the past,- concluded historian Orlando Figes - hoping that this will save them from the future’’. Nicholas II had adopted a autocratic Muscovite model and often tried to justify his policies by stating that the idea ’’had descended upon him’’,sent by God. The tsar was convinced that’’people do not influence events, God is the one who leads everything, and the tsar, as the anointing of God, should not follow nobody's advice, but be guided only by divine inspiration’’. From such a thought, dubbed, at the same time, by a passion and admiration to the Asian traditions of the Russian Middle Age were born the decisions of maintaining the old forms of Slavonic script in the official documents and publications of the time of the last Romanov. He spoke of '' Rus '', the old muscovite word used for the territories in the heart of Russia, and not of '' Rossija '', adopted during the time of Peter the Great and referring to the Empire. Nicholas II did not like the title of gosudar imperator (sovereign emperor),because it involved the fact that the emperor was the first servant of the abstract state (gosudarstvo),but he adores the title of tsar (derived from the Greek word kaisar) that came from the Byzantine era and had religious connotations of paternalist rulership. ’’After 1906, when Duma's headquarters were established in St. Petersburg, Nicholas headed his gaze toward Moscow and the provinces on which to build a "popular autocracy" to rival the parliament.With the support of the simple Russians, of the people - represented more and more by Grigori Rasputin - he will reaffirm the power of the Crown, for too long forced to retreat in front of bureaucracy and society , notes historian Orlando Figes.At the same time, the members of the State Duma were convinced that "the sovereign should admit that there are no longer the same conditions as when the Romanovs became the tsars of Moscow and rulers of the Russian land.''

In spite of his signature, Nicholas II did not feel morally obliged to respect the "Manifesto", preserving his illusory belief that he would remain an autocrat even after the creation of a powerful legislative body. In April 1906, the authorities made public the text of the first constitution, known as Fundamental Laws. Reported to Russia's traditions, the 1906 Constitution was a huge step towards democracy. The lack of will from the Crown and the Parliament to respect the spirit and the provisions of the Constitution would result in a lack of stability in the Russian internal political life. The conflict between the tsar Nicholas II and the first State Duma brought back to memory the example of the Estates General of France in 1789. ‘’However, during this beneficial period between 1906 and 1913 - wrote A.Soljenitin - they found lucid people who realized that the diseases that undermined the state were ignored, that there was a dangerous gap between society and power and a decline in consciousness national Russian.’’

The assassination of Prime Minister Piotr A. Stolipin would put an end to the effort to build a strong and powerful Russia. The Russian economy was in full swing, so it was predicted in 1912 that Russia, if it maintained its economic growth rate since 1900, would have come to dominate Europe from an economic, political and financial point of view. The First World War was to bring the Russian Empire to an end, and the influence of the Bolshevik ideas would sweep it from the political scene of the world, replacing it with another equally autocratic, but much more cynical and odious. ‘’Our firm conviction – wrote Piotr N.Durnovo, former interior minister and head of the Police Department,in February 1914- based on a long and profound study of all the subversive tendencies, is that in the country that loses the war will inevitably break out a social revolution that by its very nature will be extended to the country that will be a winner in the war.’’
1917. Русская революция: 7/23/2018 09:01:54


DesertFox
Level 57
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(thanks Kretoma. Im trying my best though to combine and translate stuff here )
1917. Русская революция: 7/23/2018 16:11:58


Wulfhere
Level 48
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZtHKMruR8w

Millennial Woes: The Fall of the Russian Empire

Edited 7/23/2018 16:20:58
1917. Русская революция: 7/30/2018 17:43:00


DesertFox
Level 57
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2.2 The mixture of "mysterious and irresponsible forces"

The crisis affecting the daily existence of the population and the front army was also felt in political life. The conflicts between the State Duma and Tsar Nicholas II continued throughout the war, anticipating the crisis that will erupt in February 1917. The military weaknesses of the Tsarist Russia were to stand out on all fronts of the First World War, especially in the '' Great Retreat '' of the summer of 1915. ‘’After only three months of war-, General Brusilov wrote - most of our professional officers and trained soldiers had disappeared, leaving only a minimum of troops that had to be quickly filled with poorly trained people, sent to me directly from recruitment centers…From that moment on, the professional character of our troops disappeared, and the army became more and more a kind of poorly trained militia…the men sent to replace the fallen did generally know only how to march…many did not even know how to load their rifles, and the way they were shooting,well, the less we say, the better…Such people can not be considered to be true soldiers’’. It should be mentioned that the military equipment transport network for the front was completely disorganized and couldn’t face the needs of ammunition, food, clothes and sanitary materials. The Russian War Ministry estimated the war would be short-lived so that the stock of materials was exhausted after a few weeks of war. ‘’What are we doing in this war? Only in my platoon has already passed a few hundred people and at least half of them have fallen into battlefields,either killed,either wounded.What will they get at the end of the war ?...’’ the russian soldier Oskin wrote in his diary in april 1915.

The German origins of the tsarina, as well as other people in the imperial entourage, the execution in March 1915 of Colonel Miasoedov, one of the protegees of the war ministry, for espionage in favor of Germany, amplified the theories of conspiracy against Russia.’’ There are many traitors and spies at the command of our army, such as the war minister Suhomlinov, by the fault of which we do not have any shells, and Miasoedov, who gave the fortress to the enemy's hands’’ declared a russian petty officer to his comrades on the front line. A war comrade would conclude : ‘’ What kind of tsar is that surrounds himself with thieves and charlatans? It is clear as daylight that we will lose the war’’.In September 1915, Russian troops on the front line accounted for only one-third of those left to fight in August 1914.

The political crisis in the Tsarist Russia reached its peak in August 1915, when the Liberal and Conservative parliamentarians, representing almost three quarters of a legislature, made a joint front with the highest officials appointed by the Tsar to demand parliamentary a government. In the face of these pressures, Tsar Nicholas II has accepted to assign to the deputies of the State Duma and members of the business circles a more important role in the mobilization of the internal front, which favored the development of a "silent revolution",characterized by the participation of workers' representatives in the administration of industry and the presence of ordinary citizens in the governmental institutions, together with the rank bearers.Also, on August 22, 1915, Tsar Nicholas II will dismiss the Grand Duke Nicholas, the head of the General Headquarters of the Russian Army (STAVKA), and will personally take command of the troops on the front, supported by General M.V.Alekseev as Chief of Staff. STAVKA will move to Moghilev, 320 km to the east, in a dazzling and mournful province town, whose name derives from the Russian word grave (mogila). A shrewd anticipation of what was to follow in the destiny of the last Romanov.On 2 September 1915, Tsar Nicholas II disbanded the State Duma. "You are the autocrat and they will not dare to forget that," says Tsarina Alexandra, who was also begging him to comb his hair with Rasputin's comb before meeting with the reformist ministers in Moghilev on September 16 ,1915.

In the context of the political-military evolutions on the fronts of the Russian armies in the spring and summer of 1916, of the numerous failures of the administration supported by Romanov, the State Duma will meet on November 1, 1916. At the beginning of November 1916, Pavel N. Miliukov, the head of the Democratic Constitutional Party (known as the ‘’Cadets’’ ) and editor-in-chief of his newspaper, accused Prime Minister Sturmer of a high treason, at a sitting of the State Duma, by the fact that it was conducting a Germanophilic policy with the support of Tsarina Alexandra. His accusations were unfounded, but the passions of his speech played a decisive role in the downplaying of the February Revolution of 1917, in which the alleged betrayal of the Government constituted, initially, the main motivation of the protesters. After the war, emigrating, Miliukov admitted that everything was a calomniy that would have allowed the Progressive Bloc to take over the country's leadership. Given that the institution of authority had become "an object of amusement," the Council of the Empire-playing the role of the Senate-would vote on November 26, 1916, a resolution condemning the interference of ‘’ mysterious and irresponsible forces’’ in the country's politics. The work of S.P. Melgunov,’’ Vers la révolution de palais’’ (Towards the palace revolution) ,published in Paris in 1939, reveals that a Masonic circle inspires the politics of the "moderate-left" of the Imperial Duma ,represented by A.F.Kerenski,Nekrasov and Kolubiakin, and both Terescenko's and Lvov's candidacy were motivated by both being in Masonry circles. Nina Berberova in the volume of memories titled " The Italics are Mine’’will evoke countless discussions with A.F.Kerenski,Alexandr Konovalov,Alexandr Hatisov,Nikolai Volski,Vasili Maklakov and Lidia Dan with reference to : the work of the Government set up in February 1917, the role of the Freemasonic Lodge in the evolution of Russia's events of 1917, the "mystery" of the decision not to conclude a separate peace with Germany in the summer of 1917, the visit of the French minister Albert Thomas to Saint Petersburg (july 1917),etc. Russian post-1917 emigrants will be extremely concerned about the fact that Kerenski's government had been paralyzed by a commitment to France, and there was also a special and secret link between ten or twelve members of the Cadet party, some right-wing socialists and one the hand of generals, the most lucid of the high command, since 1915, as well as a political plan whose existence was known by certain English and French members from friendly lodges. Questioned by Nina Berberova, during the time she was in the US, about the role played by Freemasonry in the Provisional Government's decision not to sign a separate peace with Germany in the summer of 1917, A.F.Kerenski offered in response silence and then started to sing the Aida march.

One of those "mysterious forces" that was enormously involved in unleashing the Russian revolution of 1917 was Kaiser Wilhelm II’s German Empire. A memorandum from 23 February 1915 of the Press Section of the Berlin Ministry of Interior to all ambassadors, envoys and consular representatives from neutral countries specified the existence of special offices in the countries where they had been accredited, for the organization of propaganda, namely the provocation of social disorders and strikes, the initiation of revolutionary movements, separatist movements, civil war, etc. in the Allied countries in war with Germany or the German coalition. Regarding the actions of these German propaganda offices and their influence, Russian General A.I. Denikin notes that the German propaganda work follows "the idea of Russia's dismemberment, formulated clear and realized with a clear methodical spirit by the German government".The war propaganda and the Bolshevik one introduced by the Germans into the Russian trenches as well as the social-democratic agitation had the expected effect on the Russian army ,demoralized by the war, so that the symptoms of the disintegration of the army will be felt as early as the second year of the war.

On the way to victory and the disintegration of the Tsarist Empire, Wilhelm II’s Germany took as ally the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Party, led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Historian Dmitri Volkogonov, making an appreciation for V.I.Lenin's personality, considered that he was "an internationalist and a cosmopolitan for whom the revolution, the power and the party would be infinitely more precious than Russia itself".The two factions of the Russian Social Democratic Party, the majority (Bolsheviks) and the minority (Mensheviks), would officially co-exist until 1912, although the rupture was in the years 1906-1907.The Mensevics remained faithful to the Marxist goal of overthrowing the social order, but they were still in charge of training and organizing the working class. The Bolsheviks, followers of Lenin's theories, were preparing the cadres for the revolution, which they considered imminent. At the outbreak of war, Lenin elaborated a manifesto stating the tasks of revolutionary social democrats in the european war. In November 1914, he went on to write, "Transforming the current imperialist war into a civil war is the only valid slogan for proletarians.". The idea of civil war was to become Lenin's obsession and desire on his way to power, and to his conational emigrants would declare: "On Russia, gentlemen, we can spit out ! ".
1917. Русская революция: 7/30/2018 17:47:18


DesertFox
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The Bolshevik Wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party would enjoy German financial support since 1912. A series of new documents brought to the scientific circuit lead to the conclusion that German financial support only began after February 18, 1914, when the Reich Ministry of Finance requested the opening of German bank branches in Finland,Denmark,Norway,Holland and United States. Large sums of money were poured through the Swedish bank Nia by the Coal Industry Union of Rheinland-Westfalia to support Russian emigration willing to make revolutionary propaganda among prisoners of war in Germany as well as on the front. Involved in the financial subsidy process were Deutsche Reichbank,Deutsche Bank,Diskontogesellschaft and Deutsche Naphta Industrie through their subsidiaries in Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, China and the USA, then the Austrian bank Osterreichische Creditanstalt,Swedish banks Schwedische Nia Banken and Furstenberg,the Danish bank Waldemar Hansen and even the Siberian Bank from Russia. Some subsidies came to the Bolsheviks from the Union of Industrial Unions in Rhineland-Westphalia, either directly or through intermediaries acting on behalf of these unions through their subsidiaries in Denmark. Alexandr Lazarevici Helphand (also known as Parvus), one of the figures in the shadow who played the role of an unseen lever in the unleashing of the Russian Revolution and the Bolshevik coup, was the intermediary by which, on 29 December 1915, the Germans sent one million rubles to support the revolutionary movement in Russia. Regarding the Provisional Government investigations on German-Bolshevik financial arrangements, former Prime Minister A.F.Kerenski was of the opinion that Russia's entire history would have taken another course if it had succeeded in demonstrating in front of a tribunal the "sordid murder that no one want to believe , just because it seemed so inexplicable from a psychological point of view ",of the German-Bolshevik financial arrangements.
1917. Русская революция: 8/6/2018 20:29:04


DesertFox
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2.3 The Insignificant Russian

The events at Petrograd were going to unfold at the beginning of 1917 at a dizzying pace, generating a "social explosion whose speed and appeal never ceased astonishing even today." The hesitation of Tsar Nicholas II in ordering the attack on Petrograd by the troops under the command of General N.I.Ivanov, the pressure of the State Duma, made on the tsar for abdication, and the arrival of the imperial train at Pskov, and not at Petrograd,at the Headquarters of the North Front, commanded by General N.V Ruzski, known for his antimonarchical views, contributed to the final outcome.On February 28, 1917, under the pressure of the revolutionary crowd, the Interim Committee for the restoration of order and relations with individuals and institutions. On the same day, at the initiative of the Mensheviks , the Soviet of Petrograd was formed, made up of representatives of the factories and military units. Of the 3000 deputies the Soviet had, over 2,000 were soldiers, which confirmed that the February 1917 revolution was a ''revolution of the soldiers''. On 3 March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, and the Provisional Government, through a solemn manifesto, granted to all the inhabitants of the country, without distinction of class, confession, nationality, citizens' rights essential to the democratic regime, that is freedom of consciousness, freedom of speech, spoken and written, freedom of assembly and strife, suppression of national and confessional interdictions, immediate amnesty for political and religious offenses.

One of the most prominent personalities of the Provisional Government was Alexandr Feodorovich Kerenski, Minister of Justice.A.F.Kerenski was guiding by the French Revolution, being somewhere between the political left and the right , covering, through his contacts, a wide political spectrum , from conservatives to liberals and socialists. Shortly before the February 1917 revolution, he became the secretary of a lodge of Russian freemasons, many of his political alliances were based on this membership. A.F.Kerenski believed and imagined the existence of a "third way" in Russia's political development.’’ Social justice, liberty and people - Kerenski wrote in the midst of Russian civil war - were routed to the feet by white and red corporals. But a third decisive force will defeat both of them’’. A.F.Kerenski died in 1970, in New York, aged 89. After the eight months of governing, he felt marginalized. The conspiratorial name the NKVD gave him was "The Clown". In Kerensky's view, Bolshevism was "the socialism of poverty and hunger," and socialism could not be conceived without a democratic component. In a state that does not respect the personality of man and his rights, one can not speak of social liberation, which remains a simple desideratum. In an interview between 1966 and 1967, New York's correspondent of agency ‘’Novosti’’, Genrih Borovik, former russian Prime Minister A.F.Kerenski said there was no Revolution of February 1917, but only the Revolution of October 1917, and paraphrasing a book Winston S.Chruchill, may call the Revolution of February 1917 as "The Unknown Revolution". ''Whenever talking about the past - says A.F.Kerenski - in Russia it is said before the revolution or after the revolution and it is always about October, not February. The Russians were cleansed of their memory''.
1917. Русская революция: 8/9/2018 02:00:57


Huitzilopochtli 
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1917. Русская революция: 8/9/2018 06:43:09


DesertFox
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(Thanks buffalo, i will hang this next to my diploma of 12 clases and my makhnovist self-made flag)
1917. Русская революция: 8/11/2018 20:02:08


SmedleyLover12
Level 6
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shh.. the only cringy thing is Bane's presence in the form of Buffalo's. Good text so far. The only problem I have with the Russian revolution is that it was morally wrong. All these soldiers died for the wrong cause. They needed to die for america instead so corporatism can be more enforced.

Desertfox. you should study the histories in high school. You know a lot on this subject. I'd suggest you write a text about the history of ancapitalism too! make my older brother proud
1917. Русская революция: 8/11/2018 20:12:29


DesertFox
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(Well, I did read some stuff about it, but mostly of this stuff is translated text from some diferent history mags I own and mixed up to have this text.And about high school... Im will now enter first year at university studying history )
1917. Русская революция: 8/13/2018 00:13:23


Wulfhere
Level 48
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Its cringey that someone even made a metameme for this website
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