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1917. Русская революция: 7/9/2018 11:07:39


DesertFox
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Beginning note:
The Russian Revolution, whithout red ink.


Napoleon said that revolutions are not made alone, but by their leaders. In autumn 1917, Lenin was quoting with pride the philosophy of Bonaparte.And still, what means a revolution that belongs to the people? The history turn the sandglass of time- 100 years passed since the interior problems of one’s nation have catched a color.Red. Crimson red.That red which turned upside-down half of the planet.How we reached the events of 1917? What were the elements that have brought to this world the Russian Red ?

Tradition and modernization : two things that the Russians always wanted to combine, but they never managed to put them in a proper environment .A continuous pirouette in this vicious circle , to which only one stable fundament had kept it since the time of Rurik : silnaia ruka An iron fist with or without its silk glove, to rule everyone. An absolute leader, dedicated to Russia.How much was 1917 influenced by the balance between the two wishes of the Russian people? And in what extent was in the direct will of the people the coming of this new silnaia ruka ?An iron fist with or without its silk glove, to rule everyone. An absolute leader, dedicated to Russia.How much was 1917 influenced by the balance between the two wishes of the Russian people? And in what extent was in the direct will of the people the coming of this new silnaia ruka ?

March, 1872. An idea which was sold from its first circulation in totality : 3.000 copies. The relation between Marx’s Das Kapital and the Russian people was underestimated by the tsarists.The Marxism have catched the people, gave them the variant of a western ideology, applicable in Russia, which could bring it to a modern and free system. It did influence : it was popular that, especially the youth, to embrace the head-book of the German philosophy of the 19th centuty. A young Lenin , inspired by it, have created since then what was going to be his action’s manifest in 1917 : ‘’What is to be done?’’ . Idea and ideology.Where was 1917 positioned on the Marxist-Leninist axe ?

1891. The people were defeated by hunger.Not even the nature was on their side, the dangerous wild stepe, dikoe pole as it was called, was biting with its cold teeth their bones.Sankt Petersburg was closing it’s windows to the West . The Tsar was closing it’s rolling shutters in the face of a very divided society. On one side, the people, the workers, the ones with cracks on their hands and holes in their stomachs.On the other side, the elite, nobles, writers. Intelighentia

But why the last ones have written the revolution with red ink ? The Kingdom of God was found there by Tolstoi , wekened by the uncurable pain of the Russian people.They were still looking for Zhivago.The time passed, but in front of hunger, of fate and the Tsar , even God couldn’t help them.Father Gapon stood in front of the workers who were asking for bread.Only that. The people still belived in their bond with the Romanov,the faithful Christian. Armed with white boards, on which was written : ‘’Don’t shoot the people!’’, they were heading for the palace, in 1905.The soldiers have listened to the order: 2 shots in air, the third in the front row. ‘’Not the bread was keeping them alive,but it was killing them’’, a russian ballad said, not knowing what was preventing. And that’s how the faith is lost, in state and divinity- for a bread. The priest have escaped and told to the entire Russia :
‘’We are without a tsar! We are without a God!’’

The Russian people learned to endure,but the hunger was neede to be stopped.After the old calendar, 23 February was the Women’s Day, and the women have ’’celebrated it’’ in the streets. It was 1917 and the ‘’Glorious February’’was selling…for a bread. The Russian Revolution. The year 1917 is known just on short on the entire world : an event in February, the abdication of the Romanovs, then chaos, chaos and again chaos,until the 0 point in Octomber, when the Bolsheviks took the power and the history of the world took another path.

In the last 100 years, we must have learned that the Russia’s 1917 was more than just that. Social clases, leaders and ideas, propaganda and testimony, the Whites and the Reds, the end of one of the most important dynasty of the history, people around the throne and from behind the decisions, Father Petersburg and the widow tsarina Moscow, revolution and coup d’etat. But , especially, was part of the identity of a nation. And its echo would reach even my beloved coutry , leaving its marks here too.

I will try from now on , whenever I have the time , to write ‘’whithout red ink’’, to show you the truth.(more likely to compose and translate stuff about this topic ).

DesertFox

Edited 7/9/2018 11:15:40
1917. Русская революция: 7/9/2018 20:11:15


Wednesday
Level 13
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>marxism
>german philosophy

imbecile

>two conflicting wills of the russian people

Dead wrong, it was a small minority which wanted to impose westernization.

Edited 7/9/2018 20:14:05
1917. Русская революция: 7/9/2018 23:13:49


Wulfhere
Level 48
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The Russian revolution was catalyzed by hunger but hunger has no causal role in politics. Take the USSR: millions of Russians starved because of Soviet policy, and the Soviet Union didn't collapse until things got much better - it killed itself by trying to be LESS totalitarian, gave its people a taste of nationalism and free markets. Also Russians were starving throughout the middle ages when the Tsar ruled with an iron fist. Revolution happened in 1917 because Russia was in its revolutionary life phase.

There are more elements to the Bolshevik revolution than Communism. Lenin, Trotsky and the Bolsheviks were materialists who despised culture and cohesive nations, and their revolution was to destroy nations and revolutionize markets and governments entirely to create the most wealthy pleasurable existence for the workers. But the Russian people themselves were rebelling against the inorganic, Western-imposed Tsar and simply trying to form a more organic state that wasn't necessarily Marxist. Marxism and Liberalism were the prevailing revolutionary "philosophies" at the time so revolution took on a Marxist character. The Bolsheviks hated Christendom and put Russian people in camps because (((they weren't Russian))) and socialism in one country gradually prevailed over world revolution. Nationalism replaced Communism. The Russian revolution had the fundamental goal of creating a more organic Russian model not creating Lenin's vision of a Marxist world utopia.
1917. Русская революция: 7/16/2018 19:30:16


DesertFox
Level 57
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I. A truth mystified by the Bolsheviks
The Russian Revolution took place in February 1917.



1. Russia during the Great War.
(Prologue 1)

In 1917, near the abdication of the Tsar, Russia was in a very bad situation, military speaking.Having huge loses of men and material, the Russian Empire have lost also a huge part of it’s European lands, mostly on Germany’s hands.The entering in the war, forced by France, didn’t advantage the Russians.There were problems on social, economic and military levels,and the revolutionary spirit ,started in 1905, was still burning in the Russian society. Everything on the background of the Tsar losing popularity and the military loses.

The military effort of Russia was enourmous: between July 1914 and Octomber 1917, 15 million Russians took part on the Eastern Front- stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Danube- and the Caucasus Front. From this number, 5 million were taken prisoners and 2 million died. In July 1914, 1.4 million men were mobilized, the number reaching 7.17 million at the end of 1914. 5.64 were mobilized in 1915, 3.09 in 1916 and 2.7 in 1917, all of them coming from the industrial, agricultural and educational branches, greatly affecting them.A big problem was that, even though Russia could mobilize millions of soldiers, it couldn’d feed and arm all of them, those from the first line lacking the necessities for a decent life, from food to clothes, to weapons and ammunition. The low quality of the Russian officers, most of them from big nobiliar houses, the lack of proper communications and information about the enemy , and even the hate between the Russian commanders brought big defeats and the loss of the morale of the soldiers.

1.1 The Eastern Front.

In autumn of 1914, the Germans defeated the Russians at Tannanberg ,in East Prussia, and then at the Mazurian lakes, pushing the Russian troops , though superior in numbers, behind the border. For strategical reasons, but also from taking off the preasure from the Austro-Hungarian ally, the Germans attacked Warsaw , fresh troops being brought for this action from the Western Front.Other German troops advanced pretty fast through through the Baltic region, taking Liepaja in Latvia, then Kaunas, and from there the possibility of threatening Sankt Petersburg.

The Russian success was materializing though on the front with Austro-Hungary from the first months of the war,in Galicia and Bucovina. Lvov was occupied in the first month of the war,followed by other victories.Russians produced great loses in the ranks of the Austro-Hungarian troops.In may 1915, the Central Powers launched the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive, where the heavy German artillery brough hell through the Russian troops.Under general Mackensen, the Germans smashed the Russian 3rd Army, causing aprox. 1 million causalties- dead and wounded, and taking 250.000 prisoniers.

Even though, besides the defeats, 1914 could have offered somekind of optimism on the military plan, 1915 was the worst for the Russian army.Germany continued it’s offensive on the Eastern Front ,occuping Poland , Lithuania and parts of Bielorussia.German troops were 25 km away from Riga, making the authorities of Sankt Petersburg to start planning evacuating the state archives,the treasury and other cultural goods.At the same time, the Austro-Hungarian troops had recaptured Lvov and Przemysl, having such an advance, that made general Ivanov, commander of the South-West sector of the front, to order the evacuation of Kiev, but his order was rejected.

In 1916, guesing the possible disaster that was upon the Russian Army , the Entente started to send serious help , consisting in weaponry, ammunition, various military tech, alongside with military observers.The Western Front,freezed in the never ending trenches, couldn’t permit big actions for the Allied troops, to force the German troops to move from the Eastern Front. On the inter-allied conference at Chantilly held on December 1915, it was decided that the Allied powers would start simultaneously 2 big offensives against the Central Powers, somewhere in June 1916, the Russians getting help from the Salonika front.On March 18,1916, the Russian army started a new offensive in Bielorussia, with 300.000 soldiers and over 1000 artillery pieces.Important battles took place in the North-West sector, around Riga and Naroch lakes, where the Russian army was unfortunaly defeated.

The new commander of the South-West sector, general Brusilov, had planned very good the offensive that today bears his name - the Brusilov offensive - knowing that he will have a great chance to turn the tide of war. In big secrecy,after changing some commanders, he obtained new information about the enemy, ordered to use a new tactic and took care on an adequate instruction and rearranged the troops on the front, ordered attacking Galicia, in west,gaining one of the biggest victories in the war. The offensive was aimed on a 500 km front, towards Lutsk and Kowel, right on the birthday of Jozef Ferdinand, the commander of the 4th Austro-Hungarian army, which was helding a party in Trencin, Slovakia.

The offensive started on June 4th ,1916- the Russian artillery stroke hard, the Austrian counterstrike was weak. A thing to mention is that multiple Czech and Ruthenian units defected to the Russians, other units retreated from the front and other were captured by the Russians.After few days of fighting, from the initial 110.000 soldiers that the 4th A-H army had , only 18.000 were still active. Though the success, some Russian commanders did not execute the offensive orders, and the enemy, mostly the Germans, brought reinforcements to the front.On July 27, a new Russian attack smashed the remainings of the 1st and 4th A-H armies , but the northen flank of the the Russian attack did not make the necessary manouvres and the offensive stopped.If in June, 650.000 Russian troops attacked a combined Austro-Hungarian, German and Ottoman force of 500.000 troops ,at the end of the offensive in September, both sides had send reinforcements to replace the huge loses.The fights resulted in 500.000 casualties on the Russian side and over 50.000 prisoniers.The Central Powers suffered even more: the Austro-Hungarians lost over a half of million of it’s troops-dead or wounded-and aprox 400.000 prisoniers- the total numbers representing half of the troops on the Eastern Front the Austro-Hungarians had ! The Germans had 300.000 casulaties and the Ottomans, little over 10.000. Unfortunaly for the Russians, the excessive usure of men and equipment didn’t let Brusilov to mount an attack over the Carpathians towards the Panonian plains or even further…

1.2 Romania and Russia,allies

1916 would see Romania cheerfully entering in a war she thought will win easely alongside with the Allies.Like in Russia’s case,Romania was forced to enter in war by France,which had a hard time on the Western Front.From the beginning , the Russian commanders were skeptical about the help they should have given to Romania, some of them saying directly that their new ally would only cause logistic and strategic problems to Russia.The pessimists were right, Romania being fastly defeated and occupied in it’s majority by the Central Powers troops, in December 1916.Russia was forced to move new troops towards the carpathic and danubian fronts, who did not have a great contribution in the battles in Dobrogea and around Buchararest.On the Carpathian line there were recorded some serious fights, the small offensives launched by the Russian troops bringing temporary advantages to the Allies but without decisively influencing other fronts. Romania's defeat brought enemy troops to the Danube mouths, where attacks could be now launched on Odessa, a vital city for Russia.At the same time, the territory of Moldova, defended for the time being by the Romanians,was a small spot on the strategic map dominated by the enemy advance. If Romania fell, the situation would have become really desperate for the Russians in the southwest and, consequently, in other sectors of the front.

Despite this serious situation, the western allies have urged Russia to start a new offensive in the spring of 1917, an year in which imperial losses were 15.4% of the territory of European Russia, 23.3% of the population of the same territory and one third of factories.The soldiers, demoralized and sick by war, engage in robberies, destruction and rape, deporting Germans, Gypsies, Lithuanians, Jews, and Polish from the front line, accused of pact with the enemy,hundreds of thousands of refugees filled the roads and the towns behind the front , and above all the revolution appeared.
1917. Русская революция: 7/16/2018 19:31:12


DesertFox
Level 57
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1.3 Caucasian and Persian fronts

The most interesting and active russian front, so little known to people,was the one against the Otomans,it’s line streching from the Black Sea ,through Caucaz mountains,towards the middle of Persia,today’s Iran.The fighting in the Caucasus began in autumn 1914, with the Ottomans being crushed in the battle of Sarikamis and the Russians crossing the Ottoman border, without advancing much. On January 10, 1916,200,000 Russians attacked eastern Anatolia, breaking the Ottoman defensive and sieging the city of Erzurum,the headquarters of the 3rd Ottoman army ,which fell on February 16.By the end of summer, the Russians were directly threatening the city of Sivas and the road towards Ankara.

Assiduously following the conquest of Constantinople, in the old Russian imperial tradition, since August 1916, Admiral Kolceak was preparing for a landing in Bosphorus-
two complete divisions, leaving from Sevastopol and Odessa, had to carry out the maneuver between June and August 1917,which was the most favorable period in terms of climatic conditions. He also took advantage of the fact that there were no troops in the capital's area only two Ottoman divisions, which were numerically lower than the Russian ones.Kolceak's troops were called '' Tsarigradski '', precisely to emphasize their role.Even after the abdication of the tsar, some Russian commanders wanted the plan to be carried on,but it had to be abandoned for objective reasons.

Since the beginning of the war, the Russians had 120,000 soldiers in northern Persia, from where they threatened the Ottoman Empire, having been successful in 1916 and especially in 1917, contributing to the fall of Baghdad under the British in March 1917.

The Russian troops here, mostly cavalry ones-Kuban and Terek cossacks, the Georgian and Siberian cavalry, the Caucasian Caucasian Division-comanded by general Baratov, had set up the offensive to Mosul, where the remains of the Ottoman army in Mesopotamia were. The Russians stopped suddenly at one point, the Caucasian front becoming calm in 1917. It was only in the spring of 1918 that Baratov set off a small offensive in the Kara-Tepe area, in the northeast of Mesopotamia, but with a small and reduced effects.It was clear that the Russians want to advance in Persia to reach the warm seas south and to get closer to Afghanistan and especially to India.London, on the other hand, agreed to the occupation of Constantinople by the Russians,with the condition that Russia remains in war and Persia to remains either neutral ,either on the Allies side, given that numerous Ottoman and German agents have been operating in the high circles of the Tehran power.

From the summer of 1914, the Russians armed the Christian (Armenian) and Kurdish guerrillas in the area of Lake Urmia, where the Ottomans took the city of Tabriz in January 1915, but then was recaptured by the Russians. The orders received by General Baratov were clear: taking Tehran to stop the young Shah Ahmad, 17, to make an alliance with the Germans. The Shah also understood from the discussions with the British that if they do not take action against the Germans, the Russians will get their free hand in Persia and will continue the war with the British.On November 15, 1915, the Shah gave up any armed action in the midst of the internal political crisis, so that the Russians, starting from the Quazvin base, quickly capturing Qom, Hadaman, Kermanshah, Ispahan, the basis of the Philogerman opposition, on 20 March 1916. During this time, the British had great problems in Iraq, where their advance was stopped by the Ottomans in November 1915, near the ruins of the ancient capital Ctesiphon, then suffered a long and hard siege in Kut-al-Amara in December 1915 for 5 months. Two British armies sent for depression failed to reach their target, and Baratov's Russians, about 250 km away, did not move from place to place, invoking various reasons.Only in April, after three months of excuses, the Russians moved towards Baghdad, reaching 5 days of march from it, but it was too late- demoralized, suffering from hunger and with their ammunition gone, the British surrendered to the Ottomans. A new proof of the Russian selfish imperialism emerged. The Russian command again ordered Baratov to attack Mosul to assist the British ally in May 1916 but the general refused again, citing the heat that his Cossacks were not accustomed to, malaria and cholera that had made many victims. But his refusal was also due to the information that the German officers who had arrived at Gallipoli had, after the British withdrawal from the peninsula, moved to Baghdad with a powerful arsenal of machine guns. However, Baratov has messed-up the plans of Ottoman and Persian Pan-Islamists to start a jihad from Anatolia to India. The Russian troops on these southern fronts gradually withdrew to the north, later participating in the Russian civil war ,in the both sides.

This is how Russia presented itself at the beginning of 1917, a decisive year in its history and the entire world.
1917. Русская революция: 7/17/2018 12:50:30


sound_of_silence
Level 56
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tldr, but out came the tsar, in come the german, did the slavs get what they wanted ?
1917. Русская революция: 7/17/2018 15:18:50


DesertFox
Level 57
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not really.just mess.

(btw these posts will be weekly or , if the chapther is shorter, twice per week )
1917. Русская революция: 7/18/2018 23:41:50


Wulfhere
Level 48
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tl;dr
1917. Русская революция: 7/22/2018 20:07:09


{Canidae} Kretoma 
Level 58
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Wow i am impressed DersertFox. :D
1917. Русская революция: 7/23/2018 09:00:12


DesertFox
Level 57
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2. Fall of a world : Romanov's Russia
(Prologue 2)

In the beginning of the 20th century, the Tsarist Russia appeared as a country of contrasts: 80% of the population consisted of peasants who had a life as in the Middle Ages and at the other end were the artists, the writers, the composers, the people of science, perfectly familiar with Western lifestyle.Besides the capitalist economy, represented by the fact that Russia was the largest oil producer and the main exporter of granaries, there is a regime of political censorship and police arbitrariness, with neither a constitution nor a parliament. The educated clases hoped, in the twentieth century's perspective, that Russia would jump in modernity and catch up with Western Europe or perhaps even overcome it.

In the second half of the nineteenth century Russian state people realized that Russia could not remain a great power if it did not create its own industry and an economic base capable of securing its independence in the report with foreign capital.Russia adopted the gold standard in 1897, which made the russian ruble one of the most stable currencies in the world and stimulated foreign investment.Between 1892 and 1914, foreigners invested more than $ 1 million in Russian businesses (equivalent to 20 billion $ in gold in 1995),so Russia has seen a leap in industrial development that would bring the country, along with its agriculture and mining resources, the fifth place among the world's economies.

2.1 Believes impossible to budge

At the end of the nineteenth century, although they were still forbidden by law, political parties began to take shape. The Revolutionary Socialist Party was formally created in 1902, and in 1905 the Constitutional-Democratic Party, the main Russian liberal group, which would differ from the radical organizations through its component and program, given that at the beginning of the 20th century, many of Russia's inhabitants were devoted to the idea of a fundamental change. What happened in ''Bloody Sunday ''(9 January 1905), the fall of Port Arthur in 1905, the Battle of the Tsushima Strait and the sinking of the Russian fleet(may 1905) amplified the crisis of the Czarist regime that had been shaken in February 1899 by the revolt of university students, followed by new disturbances in July 1899 and December 1900. The ’’October Manifesto’’ (17 Octomber 1905 ) would represent the beginning of the end for Russian autocracy.

Despite some obvious realities in the political and economic life of Tsarist Russia as well as of the Old Continent, Tsar Nicholas II and the entire family of Romanovs ‚’’fled in the past,- concluded historian Orlando Figes - hoping that this will save them from the future’’. Nicholas II had adopted a autocratic Muscovite model and often tried to justify his policies by stating that the idea ’’had descended upon him’’,sent by God. The tsar was convinced that’’people do not influence events, God is the one who leads everything, and the tsar, as the anointing of God, should not follow nobody's advice, but be guided only by divine inspiration’’. From such a thought, dubbed, at the same time, by a passion and admiration to the Asian traditions of the Russian Middle Age were born the decisions of maintaining the old forms of Slavonic script in the official documents and publications of the time of the last Romanov. He spoke of '' Rus '', the old muscovite word used for the territories in the heart of Russia, and not of '' Rossija '', adopted during the time of Peter the Great and referring to the Empire. Nicholas II did not like the title of gosudar imperator (sovereign emperor),because it involved the fact that the emperor was the first servant of the abstract state (gosudarstvo),but he adores the title of tsar (derived from the Greek word kaisar) that came from the Byzantine era and had religious connotations of paternalist rulership. ’’After 1906, when Duma's headquarters were established in St. Petersburg, Nicholas headed his gaze toward Moscow and the provinces on which to build a "popular autocracy" to rival the parliament.With the support of the simple Russians, of the people - represented more and more by Grigori Rasputin - he will reaffirm the power of the Crown, for too long forced to retreat in front of bureaucracy and society , notes historian Orlando Figes.At the same time, the members of the State Duma were convinced that "the sovereign should admit that there are no longer the same conditions as when the Romanovs became the tsars of Moscow and rulers of the Russian land.''

In spite of his signature, Nicholas II did not feel morally obliged to respect the "Manifesto", preserving his illusory belief that he would remain an autocrat even after the creation of a powerful legislative body. In April 1906, the authorities made public the text of the first constitution, known as Fundamental Laws. Reported to Russia's traditions, the 1906 Constitution was a huge step towards democracy. The lack of will from the Crown and the Parliament to respect the spirit and the provisions of the Constitution would result in a lack of stability in the Russian internal political life. The conflict between the tsar Nicholas II and the first State Duma brought back to memory the example of the Estates General of France in 1789. ‘’However, during this beneficial period between 1906 and 1913 - wrote A.Soljenitin - they found lucid people who realized that the diseases that undermined the state were ignored, that there was a dangerous gap between society and power and a decline in consciousness national Russian.’’

The assassination of Prime Minister Piotr A. Stolipin would put an end to the effort to build a strong and powerful Russia. The Russian economy was in full swing, so it was predicted in 1912 that Russia, if it maintained its economic growth rate since 1900, would have come to dominate Europe from an economic, political and financial point of view. The First World War was to bring the Russian Empire to an end, and the influence of the Bolshevik ideas would sweep it from the political scene of the world, replacing it with another equally autocratic, but much more cynical and odious. ‘’Our firm conviction – wrote Piotr N.Durnovo, former interior minister and head of the Police Department,in February 1914- based on a long and profound study of all the subversive tendencies, is that in the country that loses the war will inevitably break out a social revolution that by its very nature will be extended to the country that will be a winner in the war.’’
1917. Русская революция: 7/23/2018 09:01:54


DesertFox
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(thanks Kretoma. Im trying my best though to combine and translate stuff here )
1917. Русская революция: 7/23/2018 16:11:58


Wulfhere
Level 48
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZtHKMruR8w

Millennial Woes: The Fall of the Russian Empire

Edited 7/23/2018 16:20:58
1917. Русская революция: 7/30/2018 17:43:00


DesertFox
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2.2 The mixture of "mysterious and irresponsible forces"

The crisis affecting the daily existence of the population and the front army was also felt in political life. The conflicts between the State Duma and Tsar Nicholas II continued throughout the war, anticipating the crisis that will erupt in February 1917. The military weaknesses of the Tsarist Russia were to stand out on all fronts of the First World War, especially in the '' Great Retreat '' of the summer of 1915. ‘’After only three months of war-, General Brusilov wrote - most of our professional officers and trained soldiers had disappeared, leaving only a minimum of troops that had to be quickly filled with poorly trained people, sent to me directly from recruitment centers…From that moment on, the professional character of our troops disappeared, and the army became more and more a kind of poorly trained militia…the men sent to replace the fallen did generally know only how to march…many did not even know how to load their rifles, and the way they were shooting,well, the less we say, the better…Such people can not be considered to be true soldiers’’. It should be mentioned that the military equipment transport network for the front was completely disorganized and couldn’t face the needs of ammunition, food, clothes and sanitary materials. The Russian War Ministry estimated the war would be short-lived so that the stock of materials was exhausted after a few weeks of war. ‘’What are we doing in this war? Only in my platoon has already passed a few hundred people and at least half of them have fallen into battlefields,either killed,either wounded.What will they get at the end of the war ?...’’ the russian soldier Oskin wrote in his diary in april 1915.

The German origins of the tsarina, as well as other people in the imperial entourage, the execution in March 1915 of Colonel Miasoedov, one of the protegees of the war ministry, for espionage in favor of Germany, amplified the theories of conspiracy against Russia.’’ There are many traitors and spies at the command of our army, such as the war minister Suhomlinov, by the fault of which we do not have any shells, and Miasoedov, who gave the fortress to the enemy's hands’’ declared a russian petty officer to his comrades on the front line. A war comrade would conclude : ‘’ What kind of tsar is that surrounds himself with thieves and charlatans? It is clear as daylight that we will lose the war’’.In September 1915, Russian troops on the front line accounted for only one-third of those left to fight in August 1914.

The political crisis in the Tsarist Russia reached its peak in August 1915, when the Liberal and Conservative parliamentarians, representing almost three quarters of a legislature, made a joint front with the highest officials appointed by the Tsar to demand parliamentary a government. In the face of these pressures, Tsar Nicholas II has accepted to assign to the deputies of the State Duma and members of the business circles a more important role in the mobilization of the internal front, which favored the development of a "silent revolution",characterized by the participation of workers' representatives in the administration of industry and the presence of ordinary citizens in the governmental institutions, together with the rank bearers.Also, on August 22, 1915, Tsar Nicholas II will dismiss the Grand Duke Nicholas, the head of the General Headquarters of the Russian Army (STAVKA), and will personally take command of the troops on the front, supported by General M.V.Alekseev as Chief of Staff. STAVKA will move to Moghilev, 320 km to the east, in a dazzling and mournful province town, whose name derives from the Russian word grave (mogila). A shrewd anticipation of what was to follow in the destiny of the last Romanov.On 2 September 1915, Tsar Nicholas II disbanded the State Duma. "You are the autocrat and they will not dare to forget that," says Tsarina Alexandra, who was also begging him to comb his hair with Rasputin's comb before meeting with the reformist ministers in Moghilev on September 16 ,1915.

In the context of the political-military evolutions on the fronts of the Russian armies in the spring and summer of 1916, of the numerous failures of the administration supported by Romanov, the State Duma will meet on November 1, 1916. At the beginning of November 1916, Pavel N. Miliukov, the head of the Democratic Constitutional Party (known as the ‘’Cadets’’ ) and editor-in-chief of his newspaper, accused Prime Minister Sturmer of a high treason, at a sitting of the State Duma, by the fact that it was conducting a Germanophilic policy with the support of Tsarina Alexandra. His accusations were unfounded, but the passions of his speech played a decisive role in the downplaying of the February Revolution of 1917, in which the alleged betrayal of the Government constituted, initially, the main motivation of the protesters. After the war, emigrating, Miliukov admitted that everything was a calomniy that would have allowed the Progressive Bloc to take over the country's leadership. Given that the institution of authority had become "an object of amusement," the Council of the Empire-playing the role of the Senate-would vote on November 26, 1916, a resolution condemning the interference of ‘’ mysterious and irresponsible forces’’ in the country's politics. The work of S.P. Melgunov,’’ Vers la révolution de palais’’ (Towards the palace revolution) ,published in Paris in 1939, reveals that a Masonic circle inspires the politics of the "moderate-left" of the Imperial Duma ,represented by A.F.Kerenski,Nekrasov and Kolubiakin, and both Terescenko's and Lvov's candidacy were motivated by both being in Masonry circles. Nina Berberova in the volume of memories titled " The Italics are Mine’’will evoke countless discussions with A.F.Kerenski,Alexandr Konovalov,Alexandr Hatisov,Nikolai Volski,Vasili Maklakov and Lidia Dan with reference to : the work of the Government set up in February 1917, the role of the Freemasonic Lodge in the evolution of Russia's events of 1917, the "mystery" of the decision not to conclude a separate peace with Germany in the summer of 1917, the visit of the French minister Albert Thomas to Saint Petersburg (july 1917),etc. Russian post-1917 emigrants will be extremely concerned about the fact that Kerenski's government had been paralyzed by a commitment to France, and there was also a special and secret link between ten or twelve members of the Cadet party, some right-wing socialists and one the hand of generals, the most lucid of the high command, since 1915, as well as a political plan whose existence was known by certain English and French members from friendly lodges. Questioned by Nina Berberova, during the time she was in the US, about the role played by Freemasonry in the Provisional Government's decision not to sign a separate peace with Germany in the summer of 1917, A.F.Kerenski offered in response silence and then started to sing the Aida march.

One of those "mysterious forces" that was enormously involved in unleashing the Russian revolution of 1917 was Kaiser Wilhelm II’s German Empire. A memorandum from 23 February 1915 of the Press Section of the Berlin Ministry of Interior to all ambassadors, envoys and consular representatives from neutral countries specified the existence of special offices in the countries where they had been accredited, for the organization of propaganda, namely the provocation of social disorders and strikes, the initiation of revolutionary movements, separatist movements, civil war, etc. in the Allied countries in war with Germany or the German coalition. Regarding the actions of these German propaganda offices and their influence, Russian General A.I. Denikin notes that the German propaganda work follows "the idea of Russia's dismemberment, formulated clear and realized with a clear methodical spirit by the German government".The war propaganda and the Bolshevik one introduced by the Germans into the Russian trenches as well as the social-democratic agitation had the expected effect on the Russian army ,demoralized by the war, so that the symptoms of the disintegration of the army will be felt as early as the second year of the war.

On the way to victory and the disintegration of the Tsarist Empire, Wilhelm II’s Germany took as ally the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Party, led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Historian Dmitri Volkogonov, making an appreciation for V.I.Lenin's personality, considered that he was "an internationalist and a cosmopolitan for whom the revolution, the power and the party would be infinitely more precious than Russia itself".The two factions of the Russian Social Democratic Party, the majority (Bolsheviks) and the minority (Mensheviks), would officially co-exist until 1912, although the rupture was in the years 1906-1907.The Mensevics remained faithful to the Marxist goal of overthrowing the social order, but they were still in charge of training and organizing the working class. The Bolsheviks, followers of Lenin's theories, were preparing the cadres for the revolution, which they considered imminent. At the outbreak of war, Lenin elaborated a manifesto stating the tasks of revolutionary social democrats in the european war. In November 1914, he went on to write, "Transforming the current imperialist war into a civil war is the only valid slogan for proletarians.". The idea of civil war was to become Lenin's obsession and desire on his way to power, and to his conational emigrants would declare: "On Russia, gentlemen, we can spit out ! ".
1917. Русская революция: 7/30/2018 17:47:18


DesertFox
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The Bolshevik Wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party would enjoy German financial support since 1912. A series of new documents brought to the scientific circuit lead to the conclusion that German financial support only began after February 18, 1914, when the Reich Ministry of Finance requested the opening of German bank branches in Finland,Denmark,Norway,Holland and United States. Large sums of money were poured through the Swedish bank Nia by the Coal Industry Union of Rheinland-Westfalia to support Russian emigration willing to make revolutionary propaganda among prisoners of war in Germany as well as on the front. Involved in the financial subsidy process were Deutsche Reichbank,Deutsche Bank,Diskontogesellschaft and Deutsche Naphta Industrie through their subsidiaries in Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, China and the USA, then the Austrian bank Osterreichische Creditanstalt,Swedish banks Schwedische Nia Banken and Furstenberg,the Danish bank Waldemar Hansen and even the Siberian Bank from Russia. Some subsidies came to the Bolsheviks from the Union of Industrial Unions in Rhineland-Westphalia, either directly or through intermediaries acting on behalf of these unions through their subsidiaries in Denmark. Alexandr Lazarevici Helphand (also known as Parvus), one of the figures in the shadow who played the role of an unseen lever in the unleashing of the Russian Revolution and the Bolshevik coup, was the intermediary by which, on 29 December 1915, the Germans sent one million rubles to support the revolutionary movement in Russia. Regarding the Provisional Government investigations on German-Bolshevik financial arrangements, former Prime Minister A.F.Kerenski was of the opinion that Russia's entire history would have taken another course if it had succeeded in demonstrating in front of a tribunal the "sordid murder that no one want to believe , just because it seemed so inexplicable from a psychological point of view ",of the German-Bolshevik financial arrangements.
1917. Русская революция: 8/6/2018 20:29:04


DesertFox
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2.3 The Insignificant Russian

The events at Petrograd were going to unfold at the beginning of 1917 at a dizzying pace, generating a "social explosion whose speed and appeal never ceased astonishing even today." The hesitation of Tsar Nicholas II in ordering the attack on Petrograd by the troops under the command of General N.I.Ivanov, the pressure of the State Duma, made on the tsar for abdication, and the arrival of the imperial train at Pskov, and not at Petrograd,at the Headquarters of the North Front, commanded by General N.V Ruzski, known for his antimonarchical views, contributed to the final outcome.On February 28, 1917, under the pressure of the revolutionary crowd, the Interim Committee for the restoration of order and relations with individuals and institutions. On the same day, at the initiative of the Mensheviks , the Soviet of Petrograd was formed, made up of representatives of the factories and military units. Of the 3000 deputies the Soviet had, over 2,000 were soldiers, which confirmed that the February 1917 revolution was a ''revolution of the soldiers''. On 3 March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, and the Provisional Government, through a solemn manifesto, granted to all the inhabitants of the country, without distinction of class, confession, nationality, citizens' rights essential to the democratic regime, that is freedom of consciousness, freedom of speech, spoken and written, freedom of assembly and strife, suppression of national and confessional interdictions, immediate amnesty for political and religious offenses.

One of the most prominent personalities of the Provisional Government was Alexandr Feodorovich Kerenski, Minister of Justice.A.F.Kerenski was guiding by the French Revolution, being somewhere between the political left and the right , covering, through his contacts, a wide political spectrum , from conservatives to liberals and socialists. Shortly before the February 1917 revolution, he became the secretary of a lodge of Russian freemasons, many of his political alliances were based on this membership. A.F.Kerenski believed and imagined the existence of a "third way" in Russia's political development.’’ Social justice, liberty and people - Kerenski wrote in the midst of Russian civil war - were routed to the feet by white and red corporals. But a third decisive force will defeat both of them’’. A.F.Kerenski died in 1970, in New York, aged 89. After the eight months of governing, he felt marginalized. The conspiratorial name the NKVD gave him was "The Clown". In Kerensky's view, Bolshevism was "the socialism of poverty and hunger," and socialism could not be conceived without a democratic component. In a state that does not respect the personality of man and his rights, one can not speak of social liberation, which remains a simple desideratum. In an interview between 1966 and 1967, New York's correspondent of agency ‘’Novosti’’, Genrih Borovik, former russian Prime Minister A.F.Kerenski said there was no Revolution of February 1917, but only the Revolution of October 1917, and paraphrasing a book Winston S.Chruchill, may call the Revolution of February 1917 as "The Unknown Revolution". ''Whenever talking about the past - says A.F.Kerenski - in Russia it is said before the revolution or after the revolution and it is always about October, not February. The Russians were cleansed of their memory''.
1917. Русская революция: 8/9/2018 02:00:57


𝔟𝔲𝔣𝔣𝔞𝔩𝔬 
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1917. Русская революция: 8/9/2018 06:43:09


DesertFox
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(Thanks buffalo, i will hang this next to my diploma of 12 clases and my makhnovist self-made flag)
1917. Русская революция: 8/11/2018 20:02:08


SmedleyLover12
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shh.. the only cringy thing is Bane's presence in the form of Buffalo's. Good text so far. The only problem I have with the Russian revolution is that it was morally wrong. All these soldiers died for the wrong cause. They needed to die for america instead so corporatism can be more enforced.

Desertfox. you should study the histories in high school. You know a lot on this subject. I'd suggest you write a text about the history of ancapitalism too! make my older brother proud
1917. Русская революция: 8/11/2018 20:12:29


DesertFox
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(Well, I did read some stuff about it, but mostly of this stuff is translated text from some diferent history mags I own and mixed up to have this text.And about high school... Im will now enter first year at university studying history )
1917. Русская революция: 8/13/2018 00:13:23


Wulfhere
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Its cringey that someone even made a metameme for this website
1917. Русская революция: 8/13/2018 09:14:52


Wednesday
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''They needed to die for america instead so corporatism can be more enforced.''

You dumbass cuck corporatism is the economic system espoused by fascists like Thomson, Mussolini. Gentile etc. Corporatism is not when the government is guided by the interests of private corporations within the state. Corporatism is a system under which private enterprise is conducted under the eye of public groupings or ''corporations''. I'm not even gonna bother going further you're an idiot anyway. Also you quoted me as ''the average socialist'', not a socialist in the sense most imagine, I'm a fascist.

Edited 8/13/2018 09:15:19
1917. Русская революция: 8/13/2018 17:08:44


Wulfhere
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The conservative "free market capitalist" is too declawed by his liberal peers to address the problem of private money in democracy.
1917. Русская революция: 8/13/2018 17:47:01


DesertFox
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2.4 Lenin and the Revolution

In the tumultuous evolution of the events from the old Romanov Empire in the summer of 1917, several facts were to push things towards the outcome of that "Red October" and then to the disintegration of the imperial Russia, the Civil War and the birth of the USSR. The famous "Prikaz No.1" of 1 March 1917, the arrival of V.I.Lenin in Petrograd on April 3, 1917, the attempted blow of the Bolsheviks in July 1917, and the ‘’General’s Rebellion’’ (Kornilov affair,August 1917) represent some essential steps on the way to the October blow. The arbitrary and subjective application of the 'Prikaz' provisions soon led to insubordination, aggression of officers, the despolation of the gallons and the exclusion of many military cadres in the army.

The arrival of Vladimir I. Lenin on the platform of Petrograd’s train station, on the evening of April 3, 1917, is the result of the mixture of those "mysterious and irresponsible forces", as defined by Nicholas II's cabinet, that mysterious '' force behind throne ‘’. Before leaving Switzerland, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin searched Allen Dulles, a US secret agent on Switz territory, to tell him very likely about German financial support and the proposal to be transported over the front line in Russia to unleash the revolution. Allen Dulles did not have time to meet with Lenin, who at the time seemed to be ‘’an insignificant Russian exile’’. France's Foreign Minister would write in a telegram addressed to Kerenski: "From the intelligence of the French intelligence services, Lenin is a paid agent of the German secret services".Two senior German officers will accompany, on the order of General Erich Ludendorf, the train that will transit the territory of Germany. One of them was Max Warburg, head of the German secret police, none other than Paul Warburg's brother, the first president of the Federal Reserve Bank. The discourse Lenin held on the evening of April 3, 1917, in the Ksesinskaia ballerina's villa, confused those present by the fact that the socialist revolution had become a matter of weeks, not years, in the opinion of the Bolshevik leader. The next day after his arrival ,on April 4, Lenin will present his famous April Theses, proclaiming with this occasion his unconditional hostility to "revolutionary defeatism", the Provisional Government and the parliamentary republic.

In spite of the revolutionary events, the disintegration of the armed forces and the struggle of the Bolsheviks to seize political and state power, the Provisional Government did not abandon the Tsarist foreign policy objectives, namely winning the war and occupation of Constantinople, a geopolitical and geostrategic objective of great importance. The failure of the Russian offensive in June 1917 amplified dissatisfaction with the Provisional Government and allowed the Bolsheviks to resume the attack to conquer the power. Lenin made several attempts to take power, culminating with the "July Days" (July 3 and 4, 1917), when the Bolsheviks attempted to transform the huge demonstrations of the rebellious population and troops from the Petrograd garrison into insurrection meant to bring them to power. As a result of the defeat of the coup d'etat, V.I.Lenin and the group of Bolshevik leaders will enter into illegality. The Provisional Government issued an arrest warrant on behalf of Lenin, and Bolshevik publications were banned. Pro-Kerenski's protesters were to wear ,in the summer of 1917 on the streets of Petrograd,placards with the message: '' Give back Lenin to Wilhelm! ''. The events of July 1917 constituted the general rehearsal for the grand show of the coup which was due to follow in October.

In the September 1917 municipal elections, the Bolsheviks won 49.5% of the seats in Moscow, while the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, who held together 71.1% in June, went down to 18.9%.At the same time, out of the 40,000 weapons distributed to the workers on the occasion of the "military coup", a good part came to the hands of the Red Guards. The establishment of the parliamentary elections for November 12 and the convocation by the Provisional Government of the Constituent Assembly on November 28 led to the precipitation of events on the Russian political scene.Leon Trotsky, who became president of the Petrograd Soviet and, implicitly, of the Revolutionary Military Committee, believed there was a need in the assault on power by a small, cold and violent band trained for insurrectional tactics ,capable of identifying " defensive organization of the technical, bureaucratic and military apparatus of the state vulnerable places, weak parts, sensitive points "and not the masses, as opposed to Lenin, that can not be of no use.

During the night of 21 to 22 October 1917, the Revolutionary Military Committee succeeded in taking control of the military garrison in Petrograd. On the night of October 25 to October 26, 1917, the Bolshevik guards, supported by the Petropavolosk Fortress cannons, and the famous shot from the cruiser ‘’Aurora’’, occupied the Winter Palace and arrested the Provisional Government members who had fled there. The second Soviet congress opened on October 26 with 650 delegates, including 338 Bolsheviks and 98 left-wing revolutionaries. Right-wing social revolutionaries and Mensheviks read a joint statement condemning the Bolshevik coup and demanding the formation of a democratic government. The Bolsheviks' opponents would leave the Congress Hall of the Soviets, abandoning the political struggle to mix with the counterrevolutionary elements. In this way, they were finally discredited in the eyes of the masses, and the Bolsheviks had their free hand as the population reacted to events with absolute indifference because things could not evolve worse than they were already going. Those left in the congress hall, the Bolsheviks and the left-wing revolutionaries, racked up the coup, adopting a text written by Lenin, by which all power was attributed to the Soviets, and formed a new government called the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), led by Lenin. The Decree on Peace and Land was read.The struggle for the conquest of power by the Bolsheviks in Moscow and other parts of the Empire has, in the following period, dressed in various forms, from alliances with socialist revolutionaries and menshevics, in order to proclaim the power of the Soviets until the removal of the socialists.

The new government took a number of authoritative measures at the end of October 1917: the suppression of "bourgeois" newspapers, the suspension of any publication that "could set panic in the spirits by publishing misleading news",control over the radio and telegraphy, the arrest of the personalities of opposition parties, both "bourgeois" and socialist. The Constituent Assembly (370 revolutionary socialists, 175 Bolsheviks, 80 "moderates of various orientations", 40 left-wing left-wing socialists, 17 cadets) that resulted from the elections gathered on 5 January 1918. The Bolsheviks were ready for the coup, and their troops rode the way to Taurid Palace. Deputies have tried to continue the Assembly's work, despite the pressure exerted by the Red Army bayonets, kept speeches, even though they were being threatened, for the Bolsheviks then proposed at five o'clock that afternoon that the deputies should leave the room. In a 20-minute speech, held in front of the Executive Committee of the entire Soviet Russia, on the night of January 6, 1918, Lenin underlined in the stormy applause of the audience, that the Civil War, which they all expected, was the natural consequence of the socialist revolution. 100 years after the events of that ''Red October'', many Russian historians continue to be convinced that the Russian Revolution was an accident that hijacked Russia from its "natural" course, of rich and working country, which could be oriented towards democracy. "Never - A.F. Kerenski said in 1966 - will Russia reach the type of capitalism that works here in America. Hopes that in Russia is a possible european or american capitalism are in vain. But I am convinced that the socialist regime will change and Russia will become a democratic country. That's why I do not like Brzezinski (President Carter's future security adviser during 1977-1981), because he does not believe that democracy in Russia is possible’’
1917. Русская революция: 8/20/2018 18:14:44


DesertFox
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3.The Russian Revolution of February 1917
(chapter 1)

The autocracy crosses the entire history of Russia as a red thread, from the Moscow of the first princes who have been emancipated from the Mongol whip, to the Imperial Russia of the Romanovs, or the USSR of the almighty general-secretaries of the CPSU. It is so entrenched in the Russian collective mentality that many analysts consider it the only form of viable government for such a vast territory, from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, populated by nations of extremely different tongues and confesions. 100 years ago, this autocrat model was put in the bracket of history by the surprising revolutionary events of 1917.For a few months, Russia seemed to follow another historical course that would have led it to a western parliamentary republic .This unique historical chance was missed by a military coup given by a small group of revolutionary professionals around Lenin, determined and unscrupulous.And history was rewritten by the victorious Bolsheviks, who presented the coup on October 25, 1917, as the real Revolution.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia was the only one of the great powers that had no constitution or parliament.The form of government, that of monarchic absolutism, belonged to an obsolete age on most of the European continent.The officials did not take the oath of loyalty to the state, but directly to the Tsar.According to the Criminal Procedure Code, any attempt to question the authority of the tsar or the mere expression of a desire to see the regime changed were major crimes.The extreme measures of control, surveillance and repression of the population, put into practice by the State Police Department, created in 1880 following a terrorist attack on the life of Tsar Alexander II, made Tsarist Russia a prototype of modern police state .One of the heads of the State Police Department transposes this rupture between state and society in terms of a real war : ‘’ There is a people and state authority, and the latter is constantly threatened by the former. Therefore, any form of public manifestation equates to a threat to the state authority.This is why the defense of the state takes the form of a war against the entire society''

3.1 Prelude

The attempts of reform in the first decade of the twentieth century , caused by the intensification of the contestation of the system, often in violent forms, and the catastrophic consequences of the defeat in the 1905 Russian-Japanese war, were considered sufficient by the unfriendly opposition to obtain political liberties and rights comparable to those enjoyed by the nations of Western Europe. Russia's first prime minister, Sergei Witte, has warned Russia's last tsar, Nicholas II, of the danger that these unsettled demands would turn into a revolution that might overthrow the entire political regime. ‘’The progress of mankind is unstoppable. The idea of freedom will triumph, if not through reform, then through revolution. But in the latter event, it will come from the ashes of a thousand-year history that will be destroyed. The Russian bunt (rebellion), foolish and indifferent, will sweep everything in its path, leaving behind only the dust. What kind of Russia will be born from this unprecedented attempt exceeds the power of human imagination : the horrors of the Russian bunt can surpass everything that history has known. It is possible for a foreign intervention to break the country. Attempts to give life to the ideals of theoretical socialism - who are doomed to failure, but will no doubt be put into practice - will destroy the family, faith, property, the foundations of the law’’

After the critical moment of 1905, marked by general strikes and violent clashes between demonstrators and repressive forces, Nicholas II had to accept a series of reforms that would eventually transform the autocratic Empire into a constitutional monarchy. The division of government responsibility with a more and more bold State Duma has failed but lamentable due to the oscillating nature of the Tsar, often influenced by the conservative elements of its entourage. So, in the wake of World War I, Russia was in a bloody situation with an increasingly challenging regime. Russia's hasty decision to enter into a war that has proven itself to be weary, with catastrophic defeats in front of German armies , has eroded confidence in the regime, encouraging the radicalization of revolutionary elements.The institution of the monarchy, once the main pillar of the regime, is in a crisis of popularity aggravated by the poor nature of Tsar Nicholas II and the foreign origin of Tsarina Alexandra Feodoraovna. Being born in Germany, Russia's main enemy , Tsarina played the role of a scapegoat for the Russian people about the same extent that Queen Marie Antoinette of France, with her Austrian origin, played in 1789. Perhaps the situation would have been under control if the army were at the disposal of the regime. But with her cantoned hundreds of miles away, trapped in a bloody war of extensive offensives and counter-offensives, the revolutionaries were able to unfold without much trouble behind the front.
1917. Русская революция: 8/27/2018 21:16:56


DesertFox
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3.2 The Events

As is often the case in history, the weather played an important role in the events of February 1917. After a terrible winter, an unusual warming for St. Petersburg (renamed in the years of the war in Petrograd, because the old name had a much too Germanic resonance), with temperatures of +8 degrees C. In the documentaries of the era can be seen the crowds of protesters gathered on a bright sky. The spark that provoked the chain of events that eventually led to the abdication of the Tsar and the establishment of a parliamentary republic was the women's march on the anniversary of the International Women's Day on 23 February/8 March 1917.The rigors of the war economy had severe repercussions on the civilian population that suffered from a chronic food shortage. Soon the march turned into a spontaneous protest, focused on the claim of the ‘’all-day bread’’.The women were joined by the workers at the huge Putilov workshops.A witness of the events of those days, the British Herbert Stewart, the tutor of the grandchildren of the Russian tsar, notes in his diary the spontaneous and anarchic character of the revolt demonstrations directed against the authorities.‘'Revolt and disorder reigned in the streets, and I think this is the best description of a revolution: the people break up shops, plundered bakeries, women in particular. Overthrown trams, building barricades from wood and paving stones "recorded Herbert Stewart.

Three days later, the pool of people reaches over 250,000 demonstrators, both workers entering the general strike, but also women and students. Feeling that the situation was out of control, the authorities unjustly ordered the Cossack troops to intervene forcefully to disperse the crowd. Finally, over 40 dead bodies are sprinkled on the Znameski Market Square. The news of the bloody incident revolted the soldiers in the barracks at Petrograd. Most of the 140,000 soldiers were 30-40 year-old reservists, civilians a little weeks ago.The revolt of the Petrograd garrison was the decisive moment of the February Revolution, the capital of the Russian Empire escaping from the control of the Tsarist regime.

In the immediate period a dual power system,dvoelastie,which lasts until October,is born. The State Duma continues to work alongside the newly-founded Petrograd Soviet, dominated by militaries. Of the 3000 deputies, 2000 were soldiers.This shows to what extent the February Revolution was, in fact, in its early stages, a revolt of the soldiers. As an executive power body, the Provisional Committee of the Duma (later referred to as the Provisional Government) it's going down on the boots with the Socialist-dominated Ispolkom (the Petrograd Soviet Executive Committee). On March 2, Tsar Nicholas II, following the pressure of his own generals, abdicated in favor of his 12-year-old son ,Tsarevich Alexei. The Regent was to be insured by his brother, Grand Duke Mihail. Nicholas believed that this is the only way to continue the war, not considering a separate peace with the Germans that would have allowed him to use the troops on the front to restore the Crown control. Because of his son's disease (hemophilia) he change his mind, deciding to give the Crown directly to his brother Mihail.The abdication decree signed by Nicholas II is transmitted on the same day to the Petrograd Duna : ‘’In the great days of struggle against foreign enemies, who have been trying for almost three years to enslave our homeland, the Lord had mercy to send to Russia a new and tough trial […]In these decisive days for Russia's life, We believe that it is Our duty to provide Our people with the closest unity and consolidation of all national forces[…]In agreement with the Imperial Duma, We decided to give up the Russian Imperial Throne and to surrender the supreme power. As We do not want to divorce Our beloved son, We convey the succession of our brother, Grand Duke Mihail Aleksandrovich. We command Our brother to lead state affairs in full and inviolable unity with the people's representatives in the legislative bodies, according to those principles that will be set by them[…]I urge the sons of the homeland to fulfill their holy duty, to obey the [new] Tsar in the moment of national restraint, and to help him, along with the people's representatives, lead the Russian Empire on the path of victory, prosperity and glory,May Lord help Russia !’’
1917. Русская революция: 9/3/2018 22:04:34


DesertFox
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3.3 The Parties.

The main political actors claiming access to power in revolutionary Russia are extremely varied parties,different in invoice and ideological orientations, ranging from far-left anarchists to far-right nationalists. Eventually, four big camps will dispute their primacy on the political scene.

The Democratic Constitutional Party, the main exponent of the liberal political current. His members were called Cadets, after the K-D abbreviation of the party, coming mainly from the ranks of liberal professions (academics, lawyers, physicians), nobles with reformist visions and even former disappointed socialists.They were proposing the introduction of extensive reforms in society, based on a democratic constitution that would ensure civil rights and liberties for all, regardless of religion, nationality or social extraction.In a country dominated by a virulent anti-semitic climate, translated into recurrent pogroms, the Cadets made the discordant note by actively supporting the goal of emancipating the Jews.They wanted the emulation of Western institutions and economies, with the emphasis on industrialization and private ownership.In this regard, the Cadets represented the most important agents of the modernization of Russia.Although their proportion in the State Duma had fallen since the first elections in 1905, they managed to control five portfolios in the Provisional Government, including the one Prime Minister through prince Gheorghi Lvov and the Foreign Ministry, through the party leader, historian Pavel Miliukov. Other big party representatives include historian Aleksandr Kornilov, Countess Sofia Panina, Deputy Minister of Education, the orientalist Serghei Oldenburg, Minister of Education in the Provisional Government, and Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, the father of the famous writer and secretary of the Provisional Government.

The Socialist Revolutionary Party combines socialist ideas dominated by the intelligentsia with peasantism trying to penetrate the rural world that forms 85% of the Russian population. His members were known as Esers, from the abbreviation of the party name (S.R). n the first part of their activity, the main political weapon was terrorism directed against the agents of the Tsarist regime. After 1909 their tone is moderating, and the 1917 revolution propels them into an alliance of conjunctions alongside the Cadets in the Provisional Government.The leader and party theorist was Viktor Chernov, who will be the Minister of Agriculture in the government led by the other important figure of the Essers, lawyer Aleksander Kerenski.

The Mensheviks were a faction born after the rupture from the Social Democratic Labor Party of Russia, produced at the second congress organized abroad in 1903. Their title is misleading because, although menshevik derive from a russian word meaning minority, they represented the majority of the party. True to the Marxist theses, the Mensheviks wanted the change of the Tsarist regime through a democratic-bourgeois revolution that would have ensured the transition to the next stage, that of the dictatorship of the proletariat. They were somewhat moderate and more inclined to collaborate with liberal-burgeoning parties than their political rivals, the Bolsheviks.They occupied the majority of seats, 23, in the Central and Executive Committee of All Russia (CEC), the executive body of the Soviet Deputies of Workers and Soldiers from all over Russia who replaced Ispelkom.Mensheviks will occupy two portfolios in the Provisional Government, the Ministry of Labor through Matve Skobelev and the extremely important in the revolutionary dynamics , the one of the Ministry of Post and Telegraph through the georgian Irakli Tsereteli.The leader of the Mensheviks is the journalist Julius Martov, old friend and mentor of another famous menshevik, Lev Trotski, who later will join the Bolsheviks.

The Bolsheviks represented the radical faction of the Social-Democratic Labor Party in Russia that also broke away at the famous 1903 congress. Although a minority in the ranks of the russian Marxists, they have self-titled themselves as Bolsheviks after the russian word meaning "majority".As a main objective,same as the Mensheviks,they proposed the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat, but, unlike them, they did not trust the class consciousness of the workers, and wanted the revolution to be led by a small group of fanatical professionals. The way of leadership was to be the one of "democratic centralism", a concept that concealed their vision of an authoritarian government, provided by a revolutionary elite. Their leader is the revolutionary professioner Vladimir Ilici Ulianov, known as Lenin. Other important figures of the Bolsheviks are Kamenev, Zinoviev, Buharin, Trotski and Stalin, all of whom will play extremely important roles in the subsequent events.

3.4 The Reforms

The state, as the Russian subject had known all his life, collapsed within a few days. The first abolished institutions were the repressive ones. On March 4, the government dissolved the Police Department, Ohrana, and the Gendarmerie, setting up civil militias subordinated to the zemstvos (local self-administration councils introduced in 1864) and municipal councils. The Army escapes the control of the Government, going through the Soviet one by politicizing it following the Order no.1, abusivel by the Ispolkom. which issued itself a legislative role. The rapidity of the disintegration of the Russian state in those days of revolutionary effervescence, the fluidity of change, or the predominant provisory are caught by Kerenski in his memories: ‘’The "Revolution" was a word that could not be applied to those that were happening in Russia ... An entire world, the world of national and political ties had sank and all the political and tactical programs, no matter how daring and well-designed they would have been, they seemed to float in the air, devoid of object and utility’

Although the Provisional Government exercised a more theoretical political control than it actually did, the reform program adopted over the few months it has worked is really impressive. Political prisoners have been released, censorship has ended, freedom of absolute freedom being decreted, death penalty has been abolished, and vacant constitutional elections have been announced, based on universal, equal and direct universal suffrage, ending to ethnic and religious discrimination. Throughout Russia, the various social bodies, such as peasants, workers and soldiers, have been organized in councils, committees and professional associations free of state control. Russia was now moving fast to a western liberal democracy, surpassing them somewhere through the boldness of the reforms, typical of all the revolutionary regimes.Autocratic governance seemed to remain an unfortunate memory of the past, and constitutional democracy emerged on the horizon as the new ruling system of the post-revolutionary Russia .
1917. Русская революция: 9/3/2018 22:07:35


DesertFox
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3.5The End (of the February Revolution)

Although one of the main causes of the Russian Revolution was the aggravation of the population's dissatisfaction amid the war with the Central Powers, the Provisional Government took the catastrophic decision to continue it. With an army ravaged by revolutionary propaganda, with extremely limited perspectives to defeat the Prussian war machine, and with an unconsolidated authority on the internal front.Shortly, the Provisional Government was forced to confront the most determined faction to take power by any means, that of the Bolsheviks. With the help of the German Foreign Minister, Lenin, together with a group of 30 professional revolutionaries, arrives on 3 April 1917 in the Finnish Railway station in Petrograd, in a sealed wagon. Politicians in the fragile governing alliance were, however, determined to respect democratic and liberal principles, so Lenin and his loyalists were not arrested, and they could unhindered plan the assault on the fragile political edifice that emerged following the February Revolution.Cadet Vladimir Nabokov notes in his writings that the success of the Bolsheviks lies in their unscrupulous way to be, which they are proving and which contrasts sharply with the lack of pragmatism of the governors.’’ The Provisional Government had no sense of real power. It was a struggle between two forces: on the one hand, the rational and moderate, but timid and unorganized public elements, on the other, the immorality organized with its fanatical, absolutistic leaders […] Leninians and Trotskyians are totally indifferent to the fate of individuals. << When there is wood,chips are jumping >> they answer easily to any question.

In October there is a classic coup, given by a small but well-organized group of professional revolutionaries. To give an appearance of revolutionary democracy, a façade mass participated in the events of the military coup given by Lenin and his group of Bolsheviks.In a short time they return to the autocratic system based on a more draconian repressive control even at the standards of the Tsarist regime.The censorship is reintroduced, and indepedent newspapers or the one of the opposition are forbidden. Political opponents, Cadets, Mensheviks and Esers are considered enemies of the state and will be harassed, arrested, imprisoned and eventually executed by thousands. The cult of the personality of the political leaders, Lenin then Stalin, will take grotesque proportions, far exceeding that of the Romanovs.The liberal experiment of spring 1917 dies in the bud, just a few months after his gestation. Reforms initiated in this short period of time will be aborted by the new Soviet regime, and the early forms of pragmatic democracy leave room for "democratic centralism’’, a formula designed to mask the dictatorship of the Bolshevik factions. Russia sinks for more than seven decades back into the dark of political autocracy
1917. Русская революция: 9/3/2018 22:08:33


DesertFox
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Selective bibliography
- A Concise history of the Russian Revolution by Richard Pipes,
- A people’s tragedy : the Russian Revolution by Orlando Figes
- Russia: A 1,000-Year Chronicle of the Wild East by Martin Sixsmith
- The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick
- The Bolshevik Revolution by Edward Hallen Carr
- Revolutionary Russia by John M.Thompson
1917. Русская революция: 9/4/2018 11:56:33


{Canidae} Kretoma 
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Nothing i could say would do it justice.
I just say thank you for posting this.
1917. Русская революция: 9/4/2018 14:04:40


DesertFox
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It is my pleasure Kretoma.And though this have not yet ended.Still got some stuff to cover till October revolution and probly some other things related to the events.
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